Stage Race – The Joe Martin Stage Race is contested under this type of racing. A multi-day race that is comprised of daily “stage” races (typically made up of time trial, road race, and criterium) in which the cumulative time at the end of the stages determines the winner. Stage races can last anywhere from three to 25 days. The Tour de France is the most famous example of a stage race.
Breakaway - A breakaway can be one or a small group of cyclists out in front of the peloton who are attempting to distance themselves from the pursuing group.
Chase Group - This is a small group of cyclists who are out ahead of the peloton attempting to catch those in the breakaway.
Criterium – A multi-lap, one-day race around a relatively short course. Laps typically are usually less than one mile. Criteriums often take place in urban areas with sharp turns and fierce, competitive sprints are common. The final event of the Joe Martin Stage Race.
Domestique – A French term for the riders who support their team leader in the race. A domestique's goal is not to win the race for themselves, but to help their team leader win by protecting the leader from wind, chasing down attacking riders, etc. They are the unsung heroes of the peloton.
Drafting – As in car racing, riding close behind another rider gives a cyclist an advantage by protecting the rider from the wind. Drafting requires 20 percent less effort than riding in the open air. (See “Lead Out”)
Drop – To ride away from following riders who cannot keep up the same pace.
Feed Zone – A designated area along the route where riders can grab “musette bags” filled with food and drinks as they ride by. Each team has their own bags that they hand off to their riders. There is an unwritten rule in the peloton that riders should not attack the field while the riders are going through the feed zone.
Field Sprint – A mass sprint among the peloton, or the largest group of riders in the day's stage, that occurs at the finish line. This can be one of the most exciting scenes in all of sports.
General Classification (G.C.) – The overall leader board in the race showing each rider's total cumulative time in the race.
Individual Winner: The winner with the lowest accumulative time including bonuses and penalties wins.
Leader’s Jersey - This is the yellow and pink jerseys (men and women respectively) presented daily to the person with the lowest accumulative time.
Sprinter’s Jersey - Points earned by the top 5 cyclists placings on pre-determined sprint sites on the course determines who wears the green jersey.
Young Rider's Jersey - Points earned by the top 5 under the age of 23 cyclists placings on who wears the white jersey.
Gruppetto – A group of riders that form at the back of the field on mountain stages, who ride at a pace that allows them to finish just inside the time limit (see Time Cut). Usually the gruppetto is comprised of sprinters and other riders that are not climbing specialists or race leaders. Gruppetto is Italian for “a small group.”
Lead Out – When one rider sets a fast pace for a teammate, who is drafting from behind. This is typically done in the sprints, allowing the following rider to be shielded from the wind until the last possible moment when they sprint for the line.
Peloton – The main field, or pack, of riders in the race. Peloton is French for “platoon.”
Time Cut – Mostly applicable to the Grand Tours. On each stage all riders must finish within a certain percentage of the winner's time to remain in the race. Those who are unable to make the cut are disqualified from the race.
Time Trial – Also called the “Race of Truth.” Each rider competes individually in a time trial, racing against the clock. Each rider begins alone, followed by another rider thirty seconds to one minute later. Riders can pass each other on the course but they are not allowed to draft off of each other. Team time trials involve each team riding as a unit against the clock, where they are allowed to draft off of themselves but not off of other teams on the course.
UCI - Union Cycliste Internationale, the governing body for all cycling in the world including the Olympics. They are based in Switzerland.
PRT - USA Cycling Pro Road Tour (PRT) showcases the premier domestic road calendar events in the U.S., including criteriums, road races, stage races and omniums. Over six months and spanning from coast to coast, the PRT will include overall individual and team rankings for men and women, crowning PRT Champions following the 23-event calendar. The Pro Road Tour features the nation's top Pro-Am road race events, boasts a total prize purse of more than one million dollars and is open to both professional and amateur cyclists.
USA Cycling - This is the governing body for all cycling in the United States recognized by UCI. USA Cycling is based in Colorado Springs, CO.
Grand Tour – Refers to one of the three, three-week major cycling stage races: Tour de France, Giro d'Italia (Tour of Italy), and Vuelta a Espa–a (Tour of Spain).